Drugs, the Press, and Congress

If you pay much attention to U.S. politics, you have probably heard that some aspects of our current situation can be compared to the Gilded Age in the late 19th century. The most commonly noted similarities are social problems and increasing wealth disparity. Of course, those two issues are generally related.

The end of the Gilded Age was concurrent with the beginning of the Progressive Era. This started about 1890 and continued a couple of decades into the 20th century. The Progressive Era was defined as a period of social activism and reform, attempting to solve the problems created by the Gilded Age.

I was researching advertising, traveling medicine shows and the patent medicines of the late 19th century when I was reminded, again, how seemingly disparate things can be connected.

Plenty of movies and TV shows about the U.S. during that period include scenes with traveling medicine shows. Wagons filled with bottles of tonics arrive in small towns or rural areas and the conman in charge gathers a crowd. Whether you wanted or needed (or could afford) help with any of your aches and pains, at least you would be entertained. And as has always been the case with conmen, they knew what the people wanted to hear and to believe.

An example of one of the print ads. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

These traveling medicine shows were one form of advertising for the various “medications” available. Advertisements for tonics of all types were a huge source of income for newspapers and magazines. It may have been a different time, but they also knew the value of branding, Their names were as well-known to their customers as the name of your favorite restaurant or car.

But there was a problem. Those bottles of tonics didn’t have a list of ingredients, and not just because the manufacturers were protecting their super secret recipe. Some of the ingredients were toxic and/or addictive. Consider that oft-repeated story about a certain brand of soda actually including cocaine.

Enter the free press. The reform-minded journalists of the Progressive Era were known as muckrakers, and they were investigating many of the social ills of the time. They would disguise themselves and go undercover, infiltrating asylums and big business, or anywhere else they felt the truth could be discovered and shared.

Those investigative journals drove positive reform in many ways. One of the many investigations was into deaths that were linked with various tonics. In 1905, Collier’s magazine published the expose shown in the photo below.

Display advertisement for Collier’s magazine’s coverage of the patent medicine fraud, culminating in “The Great American Fraud”, 23 December 1905. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

The Collier’s article alerted the public to the dangers of their medications, but didn’t stop the manufacturers from creating and selling those tonics.

Enter the 59th United States Congress. They passed, and President Theodore Roosevelt signed, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. This didn’t solve everything, but was a solid beginning. It was mostly about blocking adulterated and mislabeled foods and drugs and was limited to interstate commerce. The products were subject to inspection, but the fines levied on businesses were small. However, all the products that did not pass inspection were subject to seizure and destruction, and that cost a lot more than the fines. Also, although the convictions didn’t necessarily cost the businesses much in fines, all those convictions were published. Consumers may not have all seen the original article, but they probably saw at least one of the convictions published.

Opening ceremonies of the 59th United States Congress, 2nd session, 1906, with Speaker Joseph Cannon presiding. Photo via Wikimedia Commons. This image is available from the United States Library of Congress’s Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID cph.3c21291.

The Progressive Era. Consumers are put in danger by a product sold to them by businesses aware of the danger. The free press steps up to expose the dangers and the businesses. Congress steps up to protect consumers by placing regulations on the manufacture and sale of the product. Easy peasy.

Random Bits of History

Sometimes I start to research a topic and decide, for a variety of reasons, not to do a full post. But some of those bits are still interesting, so I’ll share some of them with you.

Hat Trick

A hat trick is a term used in sports to signify the completion of three scores in a game. I watch soccer and a hat trick is three goals by the same player in one match. Three goals in hockey by the same player in one game, also a hat trick.

The term was first used in 1858 in regards to a cricket match. A player took three wickets with three consecutive deliveries. Yeah, I don’t know what that means, either. But it was special enough that the fans took up a collection to celebrate this great thing and great player and used the proceeds to buy the player a hat. Hat trick.

Muttiah Muralitharan bowls to Adam Gilchrist in a one-day international at Brisbane. Gilchrist went on to hit a centruy off 67 balls. Muralitharan finally bowled him for 122. (Yeah, I still don’t get it.) Photo via Wikimedia Commons.

Notre Dame

Construction on the cathedral Notre Dame in Paris began in 1163. Six centuries later, in 1793, while the French Revolution was reaching for liberty, equality and fraternity, Notre Dame was rededicated to the Cult of Reason (state-sponsored atheism). Many of the statues within were destroyed, and this beautiful church was used as a warehouse to store food and grain. Restoration didn’t begin until 1845, and now Notre Dame is visited by about 13 million people per year.

Notre Dame de Paris Altar. I’m an atheist, and I would never see this as a warehouse. Photo by Kurt Muehmel via Wikimedia Commons

The Great Viking Army

Since the late 1940s, carbon dating has been used to date things, like human bones, that contain organic material. Used on bones, this can affect the historical interpretation of archaeological finds.

A burial ground was found in England in 1982. Archaeologists hoped these were the remains of the Great Viking Army from the 9th century, the time of Alfred the Great. But the carbon dating showed the bones to be from the 7th and 8th centuries.

Turns out, carbon dating is skewed if the organic material in question ate a diet of mostly seafood rather than land-based food. Vikings spent a lot of time on the coast and in ship and had a diet that was largely seafood. It is now believed that these remains really are from the Great Viking Army. With new data, you need new interpretations.

See, look at all the fish they ate! Illustration of invading Vikings on folio 9v of Pierpont Morgan Library MS M.736, 12th century, The Life and Miracles of St. Edmund @ The Morgan Library & Museum. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

Portuguese Pavements

In Portugal, sometimes the art is underfoot. Since the middle of the 19th century, many public spaces in Portugal have been paved with calcada Portuguesa, or Portuguese pavement. Skilled artisans use cobblestones to create mosaics.

I’m all for being surrounded by beauty, but there are some issues with the beautiful pavements. There are no longer many artisans skilled enough to complete necessary maintenance and repairs. As the cobblestones get worn, they become slippery. You most definitely don’t want to wander these paths wearing stiletto heels.

Now there is talk about replacing these pavements with more modern pathways. I get the practical aspects, I really do. But if the decision were mine to make, I would choose beauty.

So cool!. Rossio square. Photo by Bex Walton from London, England via Wikimedia Commons

Why a Cog Railway?

Today’s post is a special request from my dad, Jim Hanson. He was watching Jay Leno’s Garage and saw a segment about the train that takes visitors to the top of Mount Washington in New Hampshire.

Mount Washington from a few miles east of Lancaster, New Hampshire, USA. Photo by AlexiusHoratius via Wikimedia Commons

My dad’s last base before he retired from the U.S. Air Force, my senior year in high school, was the now defunct Pease Air Force Base in New Hampshire. One of the best things about growing up in the military, and with my parents, was that they always wanted to explore all the new places the Air Force sent us.

So while in New Hampshire, of course we checked out the tallest mountain (6,288 feet) in the state. Mount Washington is known for it’s unpredictable weather, and the day we were there it was crazy windy. Like blow-away-a-small-child windy. But even that was not as bad as the record on April 19, 1934. On that day, the Mount Washington Observatory recorded wind speed at 231 miles per hour. That’s still a record for wind that’s not part of a hurricane or typhoon.

Engine and coach of the world first cog railway, which climbs Mount Washington in New Hampshire. Photo from the Library of Congress by Carol M. Highsmith via Wikimedia Commons

The Cog Railway that ferries travelers to the top of Mount Washington was built by Sylvester Marsh (1803-1884). (This link is to a page on the Cog Railway website, which talks about Marsh’s great-grandson’s research to know more about his great-grandfather.)

Born on a farm in New Hampshire, Marsh made his fortune in Chicago in the meat packing business. He returned to New Hampshire and according to his great-grandson, in 1857 Marsh climbed to the top of Mount Washington. Inspired by all he saw, he wanted to make that view available to all.

He decided a train was the best way to enable more people to reach the summit, but the grades were too steep for the standard friction-based rail. So he devised a new system, using cogs (see photo below) between the rails that would keep the train on the tracks even on the steepest sections of the mountain.

Rack and pinion (or cog) mechanism in the museum at the Mount Washington Cog Railway, New Hampshire October 2012. Photo by kremerbi via Wikimedia Commons

The partially completed railway first took paying customers on August 14, 1868 and the tracks to the top were completed in 1869, making this the first mountain cog railway in the world.

The train still runs today, and is celebrating its 150th anniversary in 2019 with special events. Some details for you:

  • The track is 3 miles long.
  • It takes about an hour to travel those 3 miles, but the views must be amazing.
  • As of today, the cost of an adult ticket on the steam train (they now also have biodiesel trains) is $78.
  • The train Jay Leno took on his show was coal-fired steam powered. For one trip, the train uses one short-ton of coal. (History and environmentalism don’t always go well together.)
  • As you can see in the above photo of the train, the boiler has to be tilted at a weird angle so that it sits level on the steep grades. Apparently the boiler would be destroyed if it wasn’t designed this way.
  • Another environmentalist nightmare is that each trip also uses, along with all that coal, 1,000 gallons of water.
  • The train actually pushes the passenger section up the mountain, rather than pulling it.

If that wasn’t enough American ingenuity for you, below is my favorite photo. The men building the tracks created sleds that worked on the cogs to slide down the tracks at the end of the work day, rather than walking down the mountain. Cogs are useful and fun!

Sliding, Mt. Washington Railway — showing railroad workers sliding down the tracks on what were dubbed “Devil’s shingles”. Photo by Benjamin West Kilburn (1827-1909) via Wikimedia Commons

The Interconnectedness of Being (Yes, That Really is a Word)

I believe that diverse world events are more interconnected and complex than we realize on a day-to-day basis. Sometimes those interconnections are best seen through the lens of history.

I recently read an academic article, “Women at Work: Innkeeping in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland 1790-1840” by Theresa Mackay, published in the Journal of Scottish Historical Studies, 37.2, 2017. At the moment, you can access the article here for free. (Thanks, Journal of Scottish Historical Studies!) This article won the Women’s History Scotland Leah Leneman essay prize for 2016.

In this video, you can hear Mackay talk about why she decided on this research topic and how she found and used her sources. At the end of the video, she discusses a personal tie to historical innkeeping.

Here and here are BBC and The Scotsman stories about her article.

Mackay used a wide range of sources to show how important women were, not only to rural innkeeping, but to the wider economy. As a woman who dislikes most “domestic” tasks, I was struck by the fact that women were preferred for innkeeping partly because it was seen as simply an extension of women’s domestic duties. Women were also believed to be a more calming influence on rowdy guests.

Mackay discusses the Amulree Hotel in her article. The hamlet of Amulree is 900 feet above sea level. Its Celtic place name was Ath Maol Ruibhe meaning Maol Rubha’s ford. The Amulree Hotel started life in 1714 as a drovers’ inn. It became a “King’s House” in the time of General Wade. After that it was a coaching inn. Photo Trish Steel via Wikimedia Commons

In truth, innkeeping required a variety of entrepreneurial and business skills. These women dealt with guests, suppliers of goods and services, and employees. They were able to react to the needs of their guests, leading them to offer new services. This led them to expand their businesses, offering horse and cart rentals, ordering goods and services from local businesses to enable those businesses to expand and hiring people to work on their farms. Because innkeeping was a cash business, they were also able to provide credit to individuals and businesses.

But this growth in the innkeeping business in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland did not happen in a vacuum. Below are some of the changes that impacted the hospitality industry during those 50 years.

  • Wars on the continent made leisure travel to Europe less desirable.
  • Books, such as those by Sir Walter Scott, extolled the beauty of the wild Scottish landscape.
  • Advances in technology created improved transportation. This included everything from stagecoaches and steamships to new or improved roads and canals.
  • There was increased leisure travel to Scotland among the gentry, but people also traveled for business and the military. There were also drovers, driving cattle to market, who needed a place to eat and rest.

The Scottish Highland are still wild and still beautiful. Photo by AndrewJGallacher via Wikimedia Commons

So am I saying that the wars on the continent led to the rise of women running inns in Scotland? Not completely. Even with the wars, would people have traveled to the Highlands and Islands if no one was writing about how beautiful it was? If there were wars and the books, would people have even been able to get to Scotland without the improved roads?

Interconnectedness. My word for the day.




What’s Your Type?

I love to read about people who were a little (or even a lot) out of step with the norms of the era in which they lived. And I mean stepping forward, not backward.

Katharine Cook Briggs (1875-1968) was lucky enough to be born into a family with new-fangled ideas about women and education. Her father was a member of the faculty at Michigan Agricultural College (now Michigan State University) and he home-schooled Briggs until she left for college at the age of 14. Briggs attended Michigan Agricultural College, earned a degree in agriculture and then worked as a teacher.

Michigan Agricultural College, 1912. This image is available from the United States Library of Congress’s Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID pan.6a06628. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

Briggs began researching personality and psychological typing in 1917 because she believed it would help her with raising her daughter, and with creating fictional characters for her writing. The big breakthrough in her studies was the English publication in 1923 of Psychological Types by Carl Jung (1875-1961).

Briggs corresponded with and met Jung, as well as reading the works of other scientists, psychologists and philosophers. She wanted to put all that she had learned about types to practical use. She worked with her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers (1897-1980), to create a way to discover the 16 personality types of individuals in order to help them identify suitable jobs and to get along better with each other.

Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs-Myers, 1921. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

Now known as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), it is widely used by businesses to determine leadership styles and to facilitate teamwork. It is used by schools to help students define a course of study and action for their futures. And it is used by individuals to gain some self-awareness and play well with others.

I first learned about and took the MBTI about 25 years ago. My cousin is an educator and a bunch of my family all MBTI’d together at a family gathering. (Thanks, Tracy, if you’re reading this!) When we were finished, I read about my personality type and I remember thinking that since there was an actual category that described me so well, that meant there were other people out there in the world who were like me.

That was a bit of a revelation. And a relief. I didn’t have to try to fit into one of the other groups because I already fit somewhere. Because of this, the MBTI will always have a special place in my heart. I have taken other personality assessments over the years for various jobs, but this is the one that matters most to me. You always remember the first.

While reading about this the last couple of days, I have read many criticisms about the survey itself and the way the results are utilized. First of all, personality type is not something that can be tested scientifically like blood type. At least not yet. And it was created in the early 1940s, a time when many ideas were radically different than they are now, so the belief that it contains gender and racial bias is not completely surprising.

Personally, I’ve seen the test skewed because people choose answers that indicate what they believe they “should” think, rather than what they really think. I’ve seen people answer questions in a way that confuses everyone who knows them, indicating that they may want to work on their self-awareness.

If you would like to take a free test that is based on Jung and Myers-Briggs, you can find it here. The site I like that gives you portraits of the 16 different types, which includes a basic overview and suggestions regarding careers, relationships and weaknesses, can be found here.

Along with the whole ahead-of-her-time thing, I had another reason for sharing about Briggs instead of her daughter. Briggs had the idea, the global concept of using personality types to improve people’s lives in various ways. Her daughter was the one who actually sat down to write the questions, tested the questions on others and then made changes. Like Briggs, I am an idea person who has to constantly remind myself to sit down and do the work and not get distracted by a shinier idea.

How about you? If I tell you mine, will you tell me yours?

I’m an ENFP. My Extrovert/Introvert is very, very close so someday I may turn into an INFP.

Feel free to share your type, how you feel about personality typing, or just give a shout out that Briggs attended and graduated from college in the eighteenth century.

One of My Can’t-Skip Movies, Cry Freedom

I think most of us have movies that we simply cannot pass by when we see that they’re on TV. The Hunt for Red October and Remember the Titans can be just starting or in the last five minutes, and I will turn to that channel and watch them.

Another is Cry Freedom, based on the true story of South African journalist Donald Woods (1933-2001) and his friend Stephen Biko (1946-1977), a black leader in the fight against apartheid. The movie is based on two books written by Woods, and he and his wife were consultants on the film.

Steve Biko. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

Starring Kevin Kline and Denzel Washington, Cry Freedom was released in 1987, four years before apartheid was abolished by legislation. At a time when most Americans relied on the daily 30-minute national news rather than emerging 24-hour news channels, Cry Freedom gave people outside of South Africa a glimpse into the realities of white-minority rule in South Africa.

But when I caught the last hour of the film this weekend, I was struck by something else. Woods was a journalist and there were increasing restrictions on the press. Not long after Biko’s murder in 1977, Woods was banned for five years for his anti-apartheid activities and writings.

South African exile Donald Woods presents his new book, Biko, in the Netherlands in 1978. Author Bert Verhoeff via Wikimedia Commons

This meant that he couldn’t work, speak publicly, write or travel. He most certainly couldn’t leave South Africa. To ensure that he followed all the restrictions of the ban, Woods and his family were increasingly monitored, to the point that Woods feared he would be killed by his government.

He and his wife made the decision to leave South Africa, to leave their home and family, with their five children. They were willing to do whatever was necessary to get out of the country, even though fleeing illegally endangered their lives. He had a book about Biko that he needed to get published so that he could do everything in his power to end apartheid.

As I watched, I wondered. What would I be willing to risk and to sacrifice to do the right thing? Which of my freedoms would have to be restricted before I reached the point where I felt I have no option but to act? Would I act in response to someone else’s oppression, or only my own?

I don’t know that anyone can answer those questions before action is required. But if you haven’t seen Cry Freedom, it’s worth your time and maybe it will get you thinking about risk and sacrifice.

P.S. For your amusement, the smarmy Soviet Political Officer killed at the beginning of The Hunt for Red October is named Putin.

Always Learning: The Lych Gate

Historians specialize because that’s pretty much their only option. Thousands of years of history and a great big world of many cultures means that you can’t know everything about everything.

Even though my degree required that I choose two areas of specialization (18th and 19th century Great Britain and Latin America), I don’t actually work as a historian, so I can wander around and learn whatever I’m interested in right now. Just so you know, that very rarely includes classical history.

This week I learned something that I feel I should have already known. A little embarrassed, I did some research on lych gates.

This Lych-Gate is the entrance to High Beach Church. A simple wooden structure with carving. Photo: Lynda Poulter via Wikimedia Commons

  • A lych gate is the gate into a churchyard, the entry into consecrated ground.
  • The word lych comes from the Old English word for corpse.
  • Lych gates have a pitched roof made of wood, clay tiles or thatch.
  • The original purpose was to provide a resting place for the shroud-wrapped body or coffin until the priest was ready to begin the service.

Overbury Lych gate entrance to the churchyard of Overbury church. Note the resting place for the coffin. Photo: Philip Halling via Wikimedia Commons

  • Lych gates were used extensively in the medieval period, and their use declined in the 18th century.
  • Because they were almost always made of wood, the original medieval gates have mostly been destroyed by either time or by man.

Lychgate to St Mary’s parish churchyard, Old Leake, Lincolnshire. Photo: Jeff Tomlinson via Wikimedia Commons

  • Some of the lych gates have been rebuilt throughout the centuries, especially during the Victorian Era, and surprising, during the time leading up to the millennium in 2000.
  • Some lych gates were rebuilt as memorials to prominent locals or as war memorials.
  • Benches were often included inside the lych gate for mourners or for guarding against bodysnatchers.

An American version. Lych-gate at the Church of St. James the Less, a National Historic Landmark in Philadelphia. Photo: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, PA-1725-A via Wikimedia Commons

  • There is a 13th-century lych gate at St. George’s in Beckenham, South London, which is said to be the oldest in England. It was restored in 1924, but the roof is essentially 700 years old.
  • The wooden posts were often decoratively carved.

The Swedish lych gate looks very, very Nordic. Garda (Garde) church is situated at Garde, Gotland, Sweden. Photo: Håkan Svensson (Xauxa) via Wikimedia Commons

  • Considering lych means corpse, there are a surprising number of business using lych gate in their business name. I found hotels and B&Bs, taverns, builders, a funeral home and a black metal band.
  • If you are on Pinterest, there are tons of photos of lych gates, including ones that you can create or buy as garden decor.

So tell me, have you ever walked through a lych gate? And did you know it was more than just a gate?



For several days I’ve been researching lunatic asylums and the laws that governed them. Unfortunately, I haven’t been able to discover the angle that I want to discuss in this blog.

So I will admit defeat, for the moment, and leave you with a couple of depictions of asylums instead.

The Madhouse by Francisco de Goya (1746-1828). Photo via Wikimedia Commons

Woodcut from Lee’s Pictorial Weekly Budget Police News – close up of “Horrors of Kew Asylum” 1876. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

French psychiatrist Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) releasing lunatics from their chains at the Salpêtrière asylum in Paris in 1795 by Tony Robert-Fleury (1837-1911). Photo via Wikimedia Commons

95 Years of History

I listen to about a dozen different podcasts, mostly about politics and history. Two of those podcasts recently had Norman Lear as their guest, and those interviews were a vivid reminder that people who have been alive for a really long time have lived through a whole lot of history.

Most of you will remember Lear for writing and producing a string of successful TV sitcoms. Political and cultural changes led him to create Archie Bunker and All In The Family in the 1970s. I am torn about wanting to watch this show again now, fearing it will be too eerily similar to our current culture. I prefer to believe that we have made progress.

Cast photo from the television program All In the Family. Back: Rob Reiner (Mike Stivic). Front, from left: Jean Stapleton (Edith Bunker), Carroll O’Connor (Archie Bunker), Sally Struthers (Gloria Bunker Stivic). Photo: CBS Television via Wikimedia Commons

But let’s go back to the beginning. Lear was born in 1922, which makes him 95 years old. His father went to prison for three years when Lear was nine years old. In one of the podcasts, Lear referred to his father as a “rascal”.

After the December 7 attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Lear dropped out of college and enlisted at age 20 in the U.S. Army Air Forces. Based in Italy, he was a radio operator/gunner on a B-17 bomber. He flew on 52 missions and dropped bombs 35 times from 1942-1945. Lear and Roscoe Brown, one of the Tuskegee Airmen, were honored at the Veteran Day parade in New York in 2015.

After World War II and before he began earning his living solely from his writing and television work, he held several jobs. As a glimpse into history, I thought it was fascinating that he held jobs selling furniture door-to-door and selling family photos door-to-door. Life before the internet.

And then there is his personal life. Lear first married in 1943, and has been married three times. He has six children, five daughters and one son. What really caught my attention was this his oldest child was born in 1947, so is 70 years old, and his youngest twins were born in 1994 (via surrogate), so are 22 or 23. I would imagine this would keep you young!

Norman Lear at the 2014 Texas Book Festival, Austin, Texas, United States. Photo: Larry D. Moore CC BY-SA 4.0. via Wikimedia Commons

The thing is, Lear isn’t just sitting around getting older. He has a website at www.normanlear.com. He has a Facebook page. He has an active Twitter account at @TheNormanLear. His Twitter timeline is full of history and will also let you know about upcoming interviews so that you can hear stories directly from him. Another way to hear his stories, and the stories of others, is to check out his podcast, All of the Above. Oh yeah, and he wrote a book.

This is a reminder that most of us can use periodically. Everybody has a story and most people like to share them. Find someone who has lived longer than you and let them tell you their story. Go learn some history.

Candy With A Soundtrack

It’s Halloween today, and that evening is best spent handing out candy with music playing in the background. Alas, my new home is not situated for a parade of creatively dressed children, but I can still have the music.

What is your number one Halloween tune? Although many people would choose Michael Jackson’s Thriller, or even Ray Parker Jr.’s Ghostbusters, I’m going to go old school. My go-to Halloween song is Monster Mash, by Bobby Pickett.

American singer Bobby “Boris” Pickett of Monster Mash fame, selling copies of his autobiography at Chiller Theatre horror convention, New Jersey, October 2005. Photo Leslie Gottlieb from Little Ferry, NJ, USA via Wikimedia Commons

Another way to pick music, for all those days that aren’t holidays, is to choose artists born on that day.

Born on Halloween in 1941 was Otis Williams of The Temptations. So many great songs, but I’m going to go with Ain’t Too Proud to Beg.

Twenty years later on October 31, 1961, Larry Mullen Jr., the drummer for U2 was born. My personal favorite U2 song is the live version of Sunday Bloody Sunday from the live album Under a Blood Red Sky.

Halloween 1966 brought us Annabella Lwin, lead singer for Bow Wow Wow. I’m sure it’s a coincidence that probably their most famous song is I Want Candy.

Annabella Lwin & Bow Wow Wow at Kant-Kino, Berlin, 1982. Photo by Braunov via Wikimedia Commons

Happy Halloween to all! I hope you have much candy and even more music.