The Interconnectedness of Being (Yes, That Really is a Word)

I believe that diverse world events are more interconnected and complex than we realize on a day-to-day basis. Sometimes those interconnections are best seen through the lens of history.

I recently read an academic article, “Women at Work: Innkeeping in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland 1790-1840” by Theresa Mackay, published in the Journal of Scottish Historical Studies, 37.2, 2017. At the moment, you can access the article here for free. (Thanks, Journal of Scottish Historical Studies!) This article won the Women’s History Scotland Leah Leneman essay prize for 2016.

In this video, you can hear Mackay talk about why she decided on this research topic and how she found and used her sources. At the end of the video, she discusses a personal tie to historical innkeeping.

Here and here are BBC and The Scotsman stories about her article.

Mackay used a wide range of sources to show how important women were, not only to rural innkeeping, but to the wider economy. As a woman who dislikes most “domestic” tasks, I was struck by the fact that women were preferred for innkeeping partly because it was seen as simply an extension of women’s domestic duties. Women were also believed to be a more calming influence on rowdy guests.

Mackay discusses the Amulree Hotel in her article. The hamlet of Amulree is 900 feet above sea level. Its Celtic place name was Ath Maol Ruibhe meaning Maol Rubha’s ford. The Amulree Hotel started life in 1714 as a drovers’ inn. It became a “King’s House” in the time of General Wade. After that it was a coaching inn. Photo Trish Steel via Wikimedia Commons

In truth, innkeeping required a variety of entrepreneurial and business skills. These women dealt with guests, suppliers of goods and services, and employees. They were able to react to the needs of their guests, leading them to offer new services. This led them to expand their businesses, offering horse and cart rentals, ordering goods and services from local businesses to enable those businesses to expand and hiring people to work on their farms. Because innkeeping was a cash business, they were also able to provide credit to individuals and businesses.

But this growth in the innkeeping business in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland did not happen in a vacuum. Below are some of the changes that impacted the hospitality industry during those 50 years.

  • Wars on the continent made leisure travel to Europe less desirable.
  • Books, such as those by Sir Walter Scott, extolled the beauty of the wild Scottish landscape.
  • Advances in technology created improved transportation. This included everything from stagecoaches and steamships to new or improved roads and canals.
  • There was increased leisure travel to Scotland among the gentry, but people also traveled for business and the military. There were also drovers, driving cattle to market, who needed a place to eat and rest.

The Scottish Highland are still wild and still beautiful. Photo by AndrewJGallacher via Wikimedia Commons

So am I saying that the wars on the continent led to the rise of women running inns in Scotland? Not completely. Even with the wars, would people have traveled to the Highlands and Islands if no one was writing about how beautiful it was? If there were wars and the books, would people have even been able to get to Scotland without the improved roads?

Interconnectedness. My word for the day.




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News of the Battle of the Little Bighorn

Although I am happy that modern technology allows us access to news almost immediately, I enjoy looking at the first newspaper reports of historical events. I like to see how much we learned after the initial reports as well as how the public’s attitudes towards those people and events have evolved. I have previously blogged about newspaper reports of Lizzie Borden and the Titanic.

This time I’m checking out the first public reporting of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, also commonly known, as if it were a morality play, as Custer’s Last Stand. On June 25, 1876, George Armstrong Custer led a cavalry regiment of the U.S. Army against a coalition of Native American tribes. For a variety of reasons, including the simple fact that the U.S. forces were completely outnumbered, 286 soldiers died that day, including Custer.

Brigadier General George Armstrong Custer, wearing a custom-made blue velvet uniform, ca. 1864. Don’t judge – maybe all soldiers had custom-made blue velvet uniforms. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

For the past 141 years, this battle and the participants have been studied and debated thoroughly. I was always less interested in the strategies and errors of the battle than in how the opinions of the American public shifted throughout the years. Was he hero or villain? Master strategist or vain publicity hound? Does it even matter how we view him from 25 or 50 or 141 years on, when the facts of the battle don’t change?

The New York Times has a great searchable archive available online, and this is their first report of the battle on July 6, 1876, which had been reported in Salt Lake on July 5 from a July 2 report from Montana.




SALT LAKE, July 5. – The special correspondent of the Helena (Montana) Herald writes from Stillwater, Montana, under date of July 2, as follows:

Muggins Taylor, a scout for Gen. Gibbon, arrived here last night direct from Little Horn River, and reports that Gen. Custer found the Indian camp of 2,000 lodges on the Little Horn, and immediately attached it. He charged the thickest portion of the camp with five companies. Nothing is known of the operations of this detachment, except their course as traced by the dead. Major Reno commanded the other seven companies, and attacked the lower portion of the camp. The Indians poured a murderous fire from all directions. Gen. Custer his two brothers, his nephew, and brother-in-law were all killed, and not one of his detachment escaped. Two hundred and seven men were buried in one place. The number of killed is estimated at 300, and the wounded at thirty-one.

The Indians surrounded Major Reno’s command and held them one day in the hills cut off from water, until Gibbon’s command came in sight, when they broke camp in the night and left. The Seventh fought like tigers, and were overcome by mere brute force.

The Indian loss cannot be estimated as they bore off and cached most of their killed. The remnant of the Seventh Cavalry and Gibbon’s command are returning to the mouth of the Little Horn, where a steam-boat lies. The Indians got all the arms of the killed soldiers. There were seventeen commissioned officers killed. The whole Custer family died at the head of their column.

The exact loss is not known as both Adjutants and the Sergeant-major were killed. The Indian camp was from three to four miles long, and was twenty miles up the Little Horn from its mouth.

The Indians actually pulled men off their horses, in some instances.

This report is given as Taylor told it, as he was over the field after the battle. The above is confirmed by other letters, which say Custer has met with a fearful disaster.


SALT LAKE CITY, July 5. – The Times publishes a dispatch from Boseman, Montana Territory, dated July 3, 7 P.M.

Mr. Taylor, bearer of dispatches from Little Horn to Fort Ellis, arrived this evening, and reports the following:

The battle was fought on the 25th of June, thirty or forty miles below the Little Horn. Gen. Custer attacked an Indian village of from 2,500 to 4,000 warriors on one side, and Col. Rneo was to attack it on the other side. Three companies were placed on a hill as a reserve.

Gen. Custer and fifteen officers and every man belonging to the five companies were killed. Reno retreated under the protection of the reserve. The whole number killed was 315. Gen. Gibbon joined Reno.

When the Indians left, the battle-field looked like a slaughter-pen, as it really was, being in a narrow ravine. The dead were much mutilated.

The situation now looks serious. Gen. Terry arrived at Gibbon’s Camp on a steam-boat, and crossed the command over and accompanied it to join Custer, who knew it was coming before the fight occurred. Lieut. Crittenden, son of Gen. Crittenden, was among the killed.

George Armstrong Custer. This media is available in the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration, cataloged under the National Archives Identifier (NAID) 558719. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

So that was the first report. That was what they knew, or at least reported, at the beginning.

The next day, July 7, 1876, they printed much more information, including a “sketch” of Custer with his school and Civil War history. They included more details of the battle, the “scene of the massacre”, the causes and consequences, and the views at the War Department.

What stuck me most about this second day of reporting was that it was less a linear report of facts and more editorial. No longer are they “Indians”, they are now called “red devils”. Oh, and there were “no less than ten thousand red devils”. Also on this second day it was reported that:

It is the opinion of Army officers in Chicago, Washington, and Philadelphia, including Gens. Sherman and Sheridan, that Gen. Custer was rashly imprudent to attack such a large number of Indians, Sitting Bull’s force being 4,000 strong. Gen. Sherman thinks that the accounts of the disaster are exaggerated.

And that’s how the news was back in the day when it wasn’t immediate. Should you be interested in seeing how this story progressed, check out The New York Times archives online. Go ahead, see what they reported the NEXT day.


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History Lost, and History Created?

Considered the first modern natural disaster, the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, Portugal, is well studied. If you are specifically interested in the scientific, philosophical, religious, economic, literary or political consequences of this event, an internet search will show you a treasure trove of information.

These are the basic facts about what happened. On the morning of All Saints’ Day, November 1, 1755, there was an earthquake in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Lisbon. It is speculated that the earthquake would have measured between 8.5 and 9.2 on the Richter scale, had that resource been available at the time.

Ruins of the Church of Saint Nicholas, following the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.Painting by Jacques-Philippe Le Bas (1707–1783). Photo via Wikimedia Commons

Not long after the earth stopped shaking, the earthquake also brought a series of tsunamis. And then there were fires, lasting almost a week. I’ve read estimates of the number of deaths being anywhere from 10,000 to 100,000, although most estimates are in the 50,000 range.

Scholars in all disciplines can study the effects of this series of events on the Portuguese Empire and on what was one of the wealthiest and most populous cities in Europe. Aiding in this research about the destruction are historical resources that are only available because of the devastation.

Lisbon, Portugal, during the great earthquake of 1 November 1755. This copper engraving, made that year, shows the city in ruins and in flames. Tsunamis rush upon the shore, destroying the wharfs. The engraving is also noteworthy in showing highly disturbed water in the harbor, which sank many ships. Passengers in the left foreground show signs of panic. Original in: Museu da Cidade, Lisbon. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

There are first person accounts from survivors in Lisbon and the surrounding areas. Visual artists depicted the events and the aftermath. Others wrote not only of what happened, but opined about the how and the why. The case has been made that this is the beginning of seismology. Learning the reasons why they chose to rebuild an entire ruined city in this particular way is fascinating.

We have available this entire array of primary resources to help explain not only what people did, but how they felt and what they believed after the earthquake, the tsunamis and the fires. If you read my posts regularly, you know how I feel about primary sources. This is an amazing window into mid-eighteenth century European life and their reaction to adversity.

But don’t forget what we lost. I first heard about 1755 Lisbon when I was researching primary source material about the great navigators and explorers from the Age of Exploration. Much of that is just…gone. Original records, logs, journals, maps and charts that were in the royal archives are no longer available to study.

The royal library in Lisbon contained 70,000 volumes. Remember, we’re not talking about mass market paperbacks readily available. As far as I know, there is no inventory, no way to completely know what we’re missing. Another palace library held 18,000 volumes. That palace also had art by Titian, Ruben and Correggio.

It looks like my message changed along the way. Originally I was lamenting what was lost. But people did what people do. They learned. They rebuilt. They moved on. Much better message.

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Museum Pieces Help Us Understand History

For those of us who are visual learners, one of the easiest ways to retain information about history is through images. Whether those images are sepia-toned photos or medieval paintings, they are vital to many of us, enabling us to better viscerally understand history.

The Royal Acquaintances Memi and Sabu, ca. 2575-2465 BCE, made of limestone and paint. Dated using her hairstyle and their embrace. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collection.

The objects found in museums vary depending upon the type of museum and the funding available. What you find at a local historical museum will differ from what is available at the Louvre. If the purpose of your visit is to learn something, then each experience will be valuable in its own way.

Lyre Guitar ca. 1805 France, possibly made by Joseph Pons. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collections.Some of the things you can find at museums are paintings, sketches, clothing, sculpture, shoes, furniture and jewelry. These items can all tell you something about the era in which it featured. The composition of a piece can tell us what tools and natural resources were available at that time. What the artist chooses to depict can teach us about their culture.

British Suit ca. 1760, made of wool and gilt metal. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collections.

Certain norms haven’t changed much over time. The rich had more stuff, and stuff that lasted longer, than did poor people. Therefore, many of the pieces that have survived are not indicative of all parts of society. We can’t change that, but we do need to be aware of existing biases.

The Faience Restorer by Paul-Narcisse Salieres (1818-1908) in 1848. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collections.

One of the things I’ve always found interesting is the number of painted portraits available throughout history. This certainly makes sense in the time before cameras. These portraits were the selfies of their time, although they took a lot longer to complete and you had to sit or stand really still for a long time. Also, unlike selfies, the portrait artist may be required to use a little flattery in their portrayal of their subject.

French shoes ca. 1690-1700, made of silk and leather. These shoes are for men, which kind of makes me giggle. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collections.

Along with cameras for selfies, we can use new technologies to access museum inventories. Most museums have at least a portion of their inventory digitized and available online. New York City’s Metropolitan Museum of Art announced in February that they would not only digitize many of their works of art, but that they would also make about 375,000 of those images freely available to the public.

Cabinet created by Jean Brandely of France in 1867. Notice the war scene in the center. To each his own. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collections.

For these images in the public domain, anyone can use them for any purpose (like I am using them in this blog post). This is a huge deal for teachers, writers and bloggers. You may spend hours to find just the right image you need, but those hours are time so well-spent.

Pectoral and necklace of Sithathoryunet with the name Senwosret II, from Egypt ca. 1887-1878 BCE. Made with gold, carnelia, lapis lazuli, turquoise, garnet and green feldspar. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collection.

For someone like me, who uses art to understand history, I simply appreciate that these images are digitized and available to me. After all, not all of us have daily physical access to the Louvre. If you want to know about clothing, food, housing or transportation during a particular period in history, check out a museum online.

Burgonet with Falling Buffe, French helmet made of steel and gold ca. 1550, probably made for Henry II of France (reigned 1547-1559). Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collection.

In the meantime, please enjoy the photos from the Metropolitan Museum of Art included in this post.

A Goldsmith in His Shop by Petrus Christus of Bruges in 1449, oil on oak panel. I think cool hats like these should become the new fashion. Image via Metropolitan Museum of Art Collection.

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Breaking News: The Georgian Papers Programme

Currently our news cycles are stuffed full of BREAKING NEWS. I love that there can be breaking news in history, even if it isn’t urgent enough to require ALL CAPS. This particular news will probably have a wide-ranging and long-lasting effect on historical research and will fill historians and enthusiasts with anticipation about what they might find.

In April of 2015, Queen Elizabeth II launched the Georgian Papers Programme, releasing more than 350,000 pieces of paper from the years 1714-1837, which will be digitized for availability to anyone interested. This time period includes the reigns of several monarchs, but because George III was king for almost 60 years, much of the material is directly from him.

The digitized papers will be searchable, making them an incredible primary research resource in many different subject areas. George III (1738-1820) was king during the French Revolution, the American Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, so you can imagine the information just on those issues. The papers include letters between the king and queen, an assortment of other letters, essays, bills, notes, menus and even a draft letter of abdication which was never completed.

King George III (in coronation robes), painted by Allan Ramsay (1713-1784). Photo via Wikimedia Commons

If you ask many Americans about George III, they will mention that he was crazy or that he was a tyrant. After all, he had to be bad enough that the American Colonies would fight to leave and become our own country.

King George III at Windsor Castle, painted by Peter Edward Stroehling. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

But labels are easy and negate the fact that we are all human beings with varying opinions and flaws. The harder truth is that George III did have some form of mental illness, although historians and others are still debating the exact parameters of that illness, and that one man’s tyrant is another man’s protector.

George III was greatly interested in science in all forms and was generally intellectually curious. He was a husband who reportedly never took a mistress despite the norms for men of his status during his time. He was father to 15 children. Probably mad, possibly a tyrant, but like most of us, he was also much more than that.

George III and Queen Charlotte with their thirteen children, painted by John Murphy. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

So why is this release of papers important? Why are historians so excited by this?

  • Primary resources allow us to learn about people in their own words. If we want to know why George III did one thing rather than another, we may find that information in one of these letters.
  • Because these resources will be searchable, information about any subject relating to the eighteenth and early-nineteenth century may be found here. Interested in gardening, medicine, astronomy or spies? Any of those may be found in these papers.
  • Opinions about George III have varied over the years depending on the writer and the time when they were writing. This collection of papers allows today’s writers to get past speculation and to interpret a primary resource.
  • Ultimately, more data usually leads to better analysis. This is a lot of data about a lot of subjects. I imagine this incredible resource will lead to many new journal articles.

The digitization is expected to be completed in 2020. If you want a sneak preview, check out this special from BBC Two “George III – The Genius of the Mad King“.


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100 Years Ago This Month – SHARKS!

If not for the events of July 1916, one hundred years ago, we may not have Jaws, Shark Week, or even Sharknado so ingrained in our culture. Imagine an America without that multi-purpose phrase, “We’re gonna need a bigger boat.”

There has been much written and filmed about those two weeks in July  1916 along the New Jersey shore. Shark attacks killed four and injured a fifth, leading to panic and uncertainty, as well as the killing of unknown numbers of sharks. The first two fatal attacks were at separate resort towns along the coast. The final three attacks were at Matawan Creek, killing two.

Map of the 1916 Jersey Shore shark attacks. Author: Kmusser via Wikimedia Commons

Map of the 1916 Jersey Shore shark attacks. Author: Kmusser via Wikimedia Commons

There is still controversy over the type of shark and the number involved. Was one rogue shark responsible for all five attacks? Was it a Great White or a bull shark?

In the past 100 years, there has been a lot of research and speculation about the attacks, but I wanted to see what they knew (or reported) at the time. Original reporting reveals so much about the culture and language. I went into The New York Times archives to see what was reported about these attacks.


C. E. Vansant Had Been Bitten While Swimming at Beach Haven

Special to The New York Times.

BEACH HAVEN, N. J., July 2 – Charles Epting Vansant of Philadelphia, who was badly bitten in the surf here on Saturday afternoon by a fish, presumably a shark, died late last night.

He was less than fifty feet from the beach and was swimming in when those on the shore saw the fin of a fish coming rapidly toward him. They called to him to hurry and yelled warning at him but before he swam many feet the fish closed with him. Vansant shouted for help and then went under. Alexander Ott, an expert swimmer and a member of the American Olympic swimming team, dashed to his assistance, but arrived too late to prevent his being bitten. After a struggle, Ott brought him ashore.

Mr. Vansant was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene L. Vansant of 4,038 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, and was in his twenty-fifth year. He was a graduate of the Department of Fine Arts of the University of Pennsylvania and was connected with the firm of Nathan Folwell & Co., of Philadelphia.

It is said that large sharks have been seen recently a few miles out.

The next attack was 5 days later, 45 miles north.


Bites Off Both Legs of a Youth Swimming Beyond Spring Lake Life Lines


Women Are Panic-Stricken as Mutilated Body of Hotel Employe (sic) is Brought Ashore

Special to The New York Times.

SPRING LAKE, N. J., July 6. – Hundreds of men and women and many children were on the beach this afternoon when a swimmer, far out beyond the outer life lines, raised a cry for help. George White and Chris Anderson, life guards, who had been watching the swimmer closely because of his distance from shore, launched a lifeboat and started for him while the crowd on the beach watched in suspense and fear.

As the life guards drew near him the water about the man was suddenly tinged with red and he shrieked loudly. A woman onshore cried that the man in the red canoe had upset, but others realized it was blood that colored the water and women fainted at the sight. As the life guards reached for the swimmer he cried out that a shark had bitten him and then fainted.

They dragged him into the boat and discovered that his left leg had been bitten off above the knee and the right leg just below the knee. The shark also had nipped his left side, for there were marks of teeth beneath the arm. Women fled when the man was placed on the beach, but the life guards and other men tried to bandage his wounds while a doctor was called. Before one arrived however the man was dead. He was recognized as Charles Bruder, a bell boy in a local hotel, who had the reputation of being a strong swimmer who often went out beyond the life lines.

The news that the man had been killed by a shark spread rapidly through the resort, and many persons were so overcome by the horror of Bruder’s death that they had to be assisted to their rooms. Swimmers hurried out of the water and couldn’t be induced to return.

So far as the life guards and old residents could recall, Bruder’s was the first death due to a shark at this resort. Sharks have been caught occasionally in fish pounds, but none was ever seen near shore before.

A few days ago a boy had one leg bitten off while swimming off Beach Haven, and a movement was started here tonight by Colonel W. G. Schauffler of Governor Fielder’s staff to have the waters patrolled in an effort to kill off the big fish.

Colonel Schauffler purposes to organize a squad of motor boatmen to patrol up and down the coast. Experienced shark fishermen will be in command of the boats, and it is hoped that the commotion will drive away such fish as the fishermen do not catch.

Matawan Creek near the mouth. Photo: Mr. Matté via Wikimedia Commons

Matawan Creek near the mouth. Photo: Mr. Matté via Wikimedia Commons

And then the final attacks six days later, 30 miles up the coast in Matawan Creek. I’m not going to post the entire article because it’s so long, but you can read it here (click to download PDF).


Swims Ten Miles from Sea Through Raritan Bay, and Into Small Creek for It’s Prey


Another Dragged Down to Death by Monster Fish – Leg of Third Twice Bitten


Man Eater Seen in Matawan Creek on Sunday – One Boy Seized in Three Feet of Water

Special to The New York Times.

MATAWAN, N. J., July 12 –

Tonight the whole town is stirred by a personal feeling, a feeling which makes men and women regard the fish as they might a human being who had taken the lives of a boy and a youth and badly, perhaps mortally, injured another youngster. The one purpose in which everybody shares is to get the shark, to kill it, and to see its body drawn up on the shore, where all may look and be assured it will destroy no more.

The death of the boy and youth and the injury to the other youngster were due to the refusal of almost every one to believe that sharks would ever enter the shoal waters where clamdiggers work at low tide. As long ago as Sunday, Frank Slater saw the shark and told it everywhere. He stopped repeating the tale when every one laughed him to scorn.

News of the tragedies here spread rapidly through neighboring towns, and from Morgan’s Beach, a few miles away, came a report that two sharks had been killed there in the morning by lifeguards. One was said to be twelve feet long.

Persons who saw the shark when it grabbed Fisher said they thought the fish was about nine feet long.

Stories about sharks attacking humans are news because it doesn’t happen that often. On this Fourth of July, remember that you’re more likely to be killed by fireworks than by a shark. Be careful out there.


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Titanic in the News…In 1912

One of the reasons that I love reading old newspaper articles is because they are a potent reminder that we don’t always know all the important stuff at the beginning of a story. I discussed this in a previous post when I included parts of the original newspaper reporting of the murders that may or may not have been committed by Lizzie Borden.

For old articles, I like to use The New York Times Archives because 1) they are a big city newspaper with a long history, 2) they are available online and 3) non-subscribers are allowed to access a certain number of articles. In this particular case, they were reporting in 1912.

Besides Lizzie Borden, an event that gets a lot of current research and discussion, even though it happened more than one hundred years ago, is the sinking of the RMS Titanic. What we know now comes from many different sources, including the original survivor testimony and the more recent discovery of the actual sunken liner. And although it was not completely historically accurate, and didn’t pretend to be, anyone who has seen James Cameron’s 1997 movie Titanic, has a sense of what life and the class system was like at the time of the disaster.

RMS Titanic departing Southampton on April 10, 1912. Author: F.G.O. Stuart (1843-1923) via Wikimedia Commons

RMS Titanic departing Southampton on April 10, 1912. Author: F.G.O. Stuart (1843-1923) via Wikimedia Commons

The original article on April 15, 1912, in a “Special to The New York Times” reported:

HALIFAX, N.S., April 14 – A wireless dispatch received to-night by the Allan line officials here from Capt. Gambell of the steamer Virginian, states that the White Star liner Titanic struck an iceberg off the Newfoundland Coast and flashed out wireless calls for immediate assistance.

The Virgnian put on full speed and headed for the Titanic.

No particulars have been received as to the extent of the damage sustained by Titanic.

The Virginian sailed from Halifax at midnight on Saturday night, and would probably be 300 miles off this coast when she picked up the calls from the Titanic for assistance.

The Allan liner has only about 200 passengers on board and would have ample accommodations for a large number of persons in case a transfer from the Titanic was necessary. The Virginian is a mail steamer, and so she is not likely to take the Titanic in tow.

Photo of the iceberg which was probably rammed by the RMS Titanic. Photo was made by Stephan Rehorek via Wikimedia Commons

Photo of the iceberg which was probably rammed by the RMS Titanic. Photo was made by Stephan Rehorek and presented via Wikimedia Commons

So they actually knew very little about the accident itself at this point. They added in some information about the prominent persons who were aboard the ship. They mentioned other ships that were in the area and should be able to lend assistance. Most of the column inches were used to explain and describe the ice field.

The Titanic undoubtedly ran into the same ice field off the Grand Banks that was reported by the Cunarder Carmania on her arrival yesterday. The ice was so thickly jammed that crevices between the pieces could not be seen, and great icebergs, to the number of at least twenty-five, were drifting about in the field. The French liner Niagara, which is due here to-day, encountered the ice, and in making her way through it had two holes stove below the water line. The steamers Kura and Lord Cromer, both of which have arrived in New York in the last few days, were damaged in making their way through the ice packs.

The Captain of the Carmania talked to reporters:

Capt. Dow after the Carmania docked met the reporters with a smile. “Really,” he said. “I never saw so much ice and so little whisky and lime juice in al (sic) my life before. Had the ingredients been handy, there would have been a highball for every man in the world.”

And then spoke more seriously about the ice:

“In three hours,” continued Capt. Dow, “on Thursday afternoon we passed twenty-five bergs. The passengers never saw anything like it before. On the bridge I am seventy feet above the water line, yet there were times when I could not see a thing but ice, and at no time did I see a piece of ice that was smaller than a lifeboat. We passed a full-rigged ship in the field. She was nodding in the swell, bobbing up and down, but apparently was in no danger.”

More information was available the next day in the headlines of the April 16, 1912 “Special to The New York Times”:

Biggest Liner Plunges to the Bottom at 2:20 A.M.


Except to Pick Up the Few Hundreds Who Took to the Lifeboats

There is boxed information below the headline that is a correction to information in the article:


Boston, April 15 – A wireless message picked up late to-night, relayed from the Olympic, says that the Carpathia is on her way to New York with 866 passengers from the steamer Titanic aboard. They are mostly women and children, the message said, and it concluded: “Grave fears are felt for the safety of the balance of the passengers and crew.”

Last lifeboat arrived, filled with Titanic survivors. This photograph was taken by a passenger of the Carpathia, the ship that received the Titanic's distress signal and came to rescue the survivors. It shows the last lifeboat successfully launched from the Titanic. Photo: passenger on the Carpathia via Wikimedia Commons

Last lifeboat arrived, filled with Titanic survivors. This photograph was taken by a passenger of the Carpathia, the ship that received the Titanic’s distress signal and came to rescue the survivors. It shows the last lifeboat successfully launched from the Titanic. Photo: passenger on the Carpathia via Wikimedia Commons

And finally a few more details in that article:

All her boats were accounted for and about 655 souls have been saved of the crew and passengers, most of the latter presumably women and children.

There were about 2,100 persons aboard the Titanic.

The Leyland liner California is remaining and searching the position of the disaster, while the Carpathia is returning to New York with the survivors.

It can be positively stated that up to 11 o’clock to-night nothing whatever had been received at or heard by the Marconi station here to the effect that the Parisian, Virginian or any other ships had picked up any survivors, other than those picked up by the Carpathia.

The story still hasn’t ended. As long as there are unanswered questions, there will be research. Think about that next time you read breaking news.


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A New North American Slavery Research Collection

About six months ago I wrote a blog post about former American slaves trying desperately to locate family members who had been lost to them through sales to other owners. Take a moment to think about that, about never again seeing a parent, child or other loved one because, as a piece of property, they had been sold. After the Civil War, these former slaves began posting notices in newspapers requesting information about those they had lost. These advertisements have been collected, creating a great source for research.

And now another type of newspaper advertisement connected to American slavery is being collected. They are also a great source for research, although the cause is not as sympathetic. Cornell University is developing an interactive and collaborative database to combine all of the runaway slave ads. These are newspaper ads or flyers giving information about fugitive slaves, often offering a reward for their return. The descriptions of the runaway slaves often tell you everything you need to know about how owners viewed their property.

Runaway slave advertisement, Maryland Gazette for May 2, 1765. Photo via Wikimedia Commons.

Runaway slave advertisement, Maryland Gazette for May 2, 1765. Photo via Wikimedia Commons.

The Freedom On The Move project estimates that there are more than 100,000 ads that have survived. These ads will be entered into a database so that the information included can be used not only for general research, but for detailed analyses of all aspects of these ads, including geography, rewards and gender.

1858 poster advertising $100 reward for runaway slave, Washington D.C. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

1858 poster advertising $100 reward for runaway slave, Washington D.C. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

This project will use crowdsourcing, so it is an opportunity for history classes and the general public to get involved in generating a database that will be a valuable research tool. If you would like to get involved, their website suggests you contact Ed Baptist at

Advertisement in a newspaper for a runaway slave named Bill, who had been captured and turned over to the Jefferson County Jail. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

Advertisement in a newspaper for a runaway slave named Bill, who had been captured and turned over to the Jefferson County Jail. Photo via Wikimedia Commons

***The Freedom on the Move website shows an ad for a runaway slave, placed by Thomas Jefferson. Yes, I know the argument that he was a man of his time, but there were also abolitionists in his time.

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A Nineteenth-Century Viking Invasion

This post is a special request from my dad and my sister. They watched Finding Your Roots together and started asking questions. Historians love when people start asking questions!

They wanted to know if there was a reason for the large influx of immigrants into the United States from Norway in the 19th century, maybe something equivalent to the Irish potato famine that drove people out of Ireland. They were interested in general information, as our family was not the only one leaving Norway at that time.

My grandparents, Ernest and Hilda Hanson, possibly in 1988. Photo courtesy of the Hanson family.

My grandparents, Ernest and Hilda Hanson, possibly in 1988. Photo courtesy of the Hanson family.


On my dad’s side of the family, my grandfather, Ernest Hanson (1910-2000), was a first-generation American. He was born in 1910, so our family must have come to the United States in the late 19th century. Although I don’t know specifically why my great-grandparents made the trip from Norway to the United States, there are reasons that apply broadly.

Norway experienced great population growth during the 19th century. This was a drain on all resources, including jobs. The amount of land available did not increase with the population, so even farm labor jobs became scarce. But there was farm land available in America that was practically free.

The huge amounts of land available in America also supported mining and other industries. There were simply not enough people in the U.S. for all the work required to make the most of this new land. We needed lots of farmers and laborers.

Many Norwegians were also searching for religious freedom. Per the Norwegian Constitution of 1814, Norwegians were not only required to belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, but were also required to attend services. These requirements were loosened over the course of the 19th century, but it was still a reason for many to desire a home with more religious freedom.

(Fun Fact: The Constitution was amended in 1964 to allow religious freedom for all except the royal family, who are required by the Constitution to be Lutheran.)

My grandparents, Ernest and Hilda Hanson, in 1996, the week before their 64th wedding anniversary. Photo courtesy of the Hanson family.

My grandparents, Ernest and Hilda Hanson, in 1996, the week before their 64th wedding anniversary. Photo courtesy of the Hanson family.


My Finnish paternal grandmother, Hilda Hanson (nee Fredrickson) (1914-2004), was also a first-generation American. Since Finland is another Scandinavian country, you would think that the same reasons for emigrating would apply. However, Finland had been a part of the Russian Empire since 1809 and had a whole different set of issues.

Mass emigration from Finland happened very late in the 19th century, later than the Norwegians. Many were fleeing the anti-Finnish policies of the Russian Empire. In the late 19th century, the Russian Empire began a policy of Russification, by which they tried to change the politics, culture, language, religion and military of Finland to become Russian. The policy was meant to terminate any Finnish autonomy and, as you can imagine, led to a great deal of instability as people feared the loss of their culture.

In both Norway and Finland, agents from mining and other companies recruited workers from the Scandinavian countries. But a lot of families and individuals were persuaded to make their own moves by family and friends who had already made the trip. Some immigrants even went back to their home countries to convince others of the opportunities available to them in this new land.

So no potato famine, just the chance for more freedom and opportunities than were available at home. At some point I’ll write a blog post (or several) with more specific information about some of the branches of my family. I’m sure there are some fascinating stories waiting to be shared.

And as a special treat if you have Finnish ancestors, I found a site that has records of Finnish immigrants from 1834-1897. Actually, it’s easy to use and fun even if you don’t have Finnish ancestors. I wasn’t able to find my great-grandfather Eleck Frederickson, even though I checked different spellings for the last name. I’ll need to find out if anyone in the family knows exactly when he arrived. Have fun!

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Take A Course, Become An Autodidact

I am a great believer in the value of education, but I don’t think that has to be a formal education. For a variety of reasons, a college degree is not for everyone. But that doesn’t mean that you can’t be a lifelong learner. This type of learning is based not on the need or desire for a degree or certification, but on endless curiosity.

Anonymous portrait (once claimed to be a self-portrait) of Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1600. Uffizi, Florence. Photo by Nico Barbatelli via Wikimedia Commons

Anonymous portrait (once claimed to be a self-portrait) of Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1600. Uffizi, Florence. Photo by Nico Barbatelli via Wikimedia Commons

An autodidact is someone who is self-taught in a subject for which they have had no formal education. One of the most famous autodidacts in history is Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519). Painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, etc. One look at his centuries old notebooks inspires awe. Samuel Clemens (1835-1910), also known as Mark Twain, left school at 13 and self-educated with both books and a wide variety of life experiences. Quentin Tarantino (1963- ) is a high school dropout.

There are many avenues available if you are interested in learning something new. One that has been around for 25 years, but has been getting a lot of attention lately, is The Great Courses. These are courses featuring “the world’s greatest professors”. Well, they have Neil deGrasse Tyson, so who am I to argue.

Many public libraries have purchased courses, allowing you free access. You can also purchase courses in various formats. Although many of the prices seem high, they always have some courses available for 70% off, making them very affordable. The sale courses rotate throughout the year, making it easier for you to try new topics and learn something totally new.

The Great Courses also have a new streaming service. Pay a monthly subscription fee and you can take as many courses as you want. No exams, no final research papers. Just the fun of learning something new.

Although I want to dive into some of the history courses, it should be fun to expand my horizons a little. I’m thinking The Science of Natural Healing, or Everyday Engineering: Understanding the Marvels of Daily Life, or maybe Understanding the Human Body: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. These are from the science section, and I had to work not to be seduced by the history of science courses.

What about you? Are you a lifelong learner? Like me, do you want to know a little bit about everything?

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